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Ergenlerde Etnik Grup ve Boş Zaman Aktivitesi / Ethnic Group and Leisure Time Activity in Adolescents

Year 2023, Volume: 14 Issue: 3, 120 - 132, 30.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1280422

Abstract

Bu araştırmada iki farklı Avrupa ülkesinde yaşayan, aynı etnik gruba ait ergenlerin diğer etnik gruplardan boş zaman aktivitelerine katılım düzeyleri açısından farklılaşıp farklılaşmadığı araştırılmıştır. Bu amaçla 14-24 yaşları arasında Almanya da yaşayan 88 Alman, Almanya da yaşayan 75 Türk, Kosova da yaşayan 268 Türk ve 203 Arnavut olmak üzere 634 ergen denekten yararlanılmıştır. Özekes (2011) tarafından geliştirilen boş zaman aktivite ölçeğinin kullanıldığı bu çalışmada ölçek Almanca ve Arnavutça’ya tercüme edilmiştir. Veri toplama sırasında ölçek Almanlara Almanca, Arnavutlara Arnavutça, Türklere Türkçe olarak uygulanmıştır. Boş zaman aktivite ölçeği deneklere yaşadıkları ülkelerde farklı sosyal ortamlarda veya okullarında araştırmaya katılmaya gönüllü bireyler arasından seçkisiz olarak seçilerek uygulanmıştır. Yapılan tek yönlü ANOVA analizi sonuçları araştırmaya katılan etnik gruplar arasında boş zaman aktivite ölçeğinin tüm alt alanlarında anlamlı farklılıklar olduğunu göstermiştir. Bulunan bu anlamlı farkların hangi gruplardan kaynaklandığını belirlemek için posthock analizlerinde sanatsal, sosyal, fiziksel boş zaman aktivite alt ölçekleri için Dunnet testi; entelektüel, pratik ve özbakım alt ölçekleri için LSD çoklu karşılaştırma testleri yapılmıştır. Yapılan çoklu karşılaştırma testleri sonucunda Alman ergenlerin, Türk ergenlerden tüm boş zaman etkinliklerinde anlamlı düzeyde farklılaştığı bulunmuştur. Aynı şekilde Kosova’da yaşayan etnik gruplar olan Türkler ve Arnavutlar arasında sosyal, entelektüel, pratik, özbakım aktivitelerinde anlamlı farklar olduğu bulunmuştur. Bulgular genel olarak değerlendirildiğinde boş zaman aktivitelerine katılım düzeyinin yaşanılan ülkenin hakim kültüründen daha fazla ait olunan etnik grubun sahip olduğu değerlerle ilişkili olduğu değerlendirilmiştir. Ergen bireyler ailelerinin sahip olduğu ve kendilerinin içinde yetiştikleri etnik kültürel değerlere uyan boş zaman aktivitelerine katılma eğilimini göstermektedirler. Bu araştırmada sosyo ekonomik düzey ölçülmemesine rağmen etnik gruplar arasındaki bu farkın sosyo-ekonomik düzey ile ilişkili olmayıp farklı etnik gruplar arasındaki yaşamsal ve iletişimsel farklılık nedeniyle bu ayrımın olabileceği düşünülmüştür. Ülkemiz gibi farklı etnik grupların yaşadığı bir ülkede ergenlerin boş zaman aktivitelerine katılımları kendi kültürel değerleriyle alakalı olabileceğinden, kültürler arası ilişkilerin ergenler arasında güçlendirilmesi açısından ergenlik döneminde ortak boş zaman aktivitelerinin oluşturulmasının etnik kültürler arası ilişkiyi olumlu etkileyebileceği üzerinde durulmuştur.

References

  • Arnon, S. Shamai, S. & Ilatov, Z (2008) Socialization agents and activities of young adolescents. Adolesence 43 (170) 373-397.
  • Büküşoğlu, N. ve Bayturan, A.F. (2005). Serbest Zaman etkinliklerinin gençlerin psikososyal durumlarına ilişkin algısı üzerindeki rolü. Ege Tıp Dergisi, 44 (3), 173-177
  • Caldwell, L L. & Darling, N. (1999). Leisure context, parental control and resistance to peer pressure as predictors of adolescent partying and substance abuse. An ecological perspectıve. Journal of Leisure Research, 31 (1) 55-77.
  • Caldwell, L L, Baldwin, C.K. Walls, T. & Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary effects o f a leisure education program to promote healthy use of free time among middle school adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 36 (3) 310-335.
  • Chilsholm, L. & Hurrelmann, K.(1995) Adolescence in modern europe: pluralized transition patterns and their ımplications for personal and social risk. Journal of Adolescence 18 (2), 129-158 doi.org/10.1006/Jado.1995.1010
  • Coatsworth, J.D., Sharp, E. H., Palen, L.A., Darling, N., Cumsille, P. & Marta, E. (2005). Exploring adolescent self-defining Leisure activities and identity experience across three countries. International Journal Of Behavioral Development 29(5) 361-370.
  • Çifçi, S. & Kumcağız, H. (2023). The relationship between fear of missing out and subjective well-being in adolescent: The mediating role of social comparison and loneliness, E-International Journal of Educational Research, 14 (2), 83-101.
  • Darling, N., Caldwell, L.L. & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extra curricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1) 51-76.
  • Floyd, M. F. & Shinew, K. I. (1999). Convergence and divergence in leisure style among whites and African Americans: Toward an interracial contact hypothesis. Journal of Leisure research. 33 (4) 359-384.
  • Iso-Ahola, S. E. & Buttimer, K (1981) The emergence of work and leisure ethics from early adolescence to early adulthood, Journal of Leisure Research, 13.
  • Kim, S., Sung, j., Park, J. & Dıttmore,S.W. (2015). The Relationship among leisure attıtude, satisfactiın and psychological well-being among college students. Journal of Physical Education and Sports. 15(1) 70-76.
  • Kleiber, D. A., Larson, R. & Csikszenetmihalyi, M. (1986) The Experience of leisure in adolescence. Journal of Leisure Research. 18 (3) 169-176.
  • Kleiber, D. A Caldwell, L L & Shaw, S. M. (1993). Leisure Meanings in adolescence. society and leisure, 16 (1) 99-114.
  • Kleiber, D. A. (1999). Leisure experience and human development: A dialectical interpretatıon New York: Basic Books
  • Kukk, K., Van Ham, M. & Tammaru, T. (2018 ). Etnicity of leisure: a domains approach to ethnic integration during freetime activities. Journal of Economic and Human Geography. 110 (3) 289-302.
  • Larson, R. (1994). Youth organızatıons, hobbies, and sports as developmental contexts. İn R K Silbereisen ve E. Todt (Eds). Adolescence in context: The interplay of family school peers and work in adjustment. New York: Springer.
  • Özekes, M.(2011) Ergenlik döneminde boş zaman aktivitelerinin incelenmesi. Ege Eğitim dergisi 12(1) 1-21
  • Petronyte, G. & Zaborskis, A.(2009) The influence of individual and regional factors on association between leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints among adolescents in Europe. Central European. Journal of Public Health 17(4) 215-219.
  • Philipp, S. F. ( 1999 ) Are we welcome? African American racial Acceptance in leisure activities and the importance given to children’s leisure. Journal of leisure research. 31 (4) 385-403
  • Robertson, B J. (1999). Leisure and family: perspectives of male adolescents who engage in delinquent activity as leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 31.
  • Sandahl, D.M (1992). Leisure in our lives: exploring the common leisure occasion. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(1), 19-32
  • Shinew, K.J. , Floyd, M.F. & Parry, D. (2004) Understanding the relationship between Race and leisure activities and constraints: exploring an alternative framework. Leisure Sience, 26: 181-199.
  • Toprakçı, E. (2017) Sınıf yönetimi. Ankara: Pegem Yayınları (3.Baskı)
  • Trainor, S., Delfabbro, P., Anderson, S. & Winefield, A. (2009) Leisure Activities and adolescent psychological well being. Journal of adolescence, 3 (03), 8-13.
  • Tsai, E. H. & Coleman, D. J. (1999 ) Leisure constraints of chinese immigrants: An explonatory study. Society and Leisure. 22. 243-264.
  • Van de Akken, O.B.A. & Lees, S. (2001) . Leisure activities and adolescent sexual behavior. Sex Education 1(2) 137-147.
  • Woodard, M.D. (1988). Class, Regionality and leisure among urban black Americans: The post civil right’s era, Journal of Leisure Research. 20. 87-105

Ethnic Group and Leisure Time Activity in Adolescents / Ergenlerde Etnik Grup ve Boş Zaman Aktivitesi

Year 2023, Volume: 14 Issue: 3, 120 - 132, 30.06.2023
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1280422

Abstract

In this study, it was investigated whether adolescents living in two different European countries and belonging to the same ethnic group differ from other ethnic groups in terms of their participation in leisure activities. For this purpose, 634 adolescents between the ages of 14-24, 88 Germans living in Germany, 75 Turks living in Germany, 268 Turks and 203 Albanians living in Kosovo, were used as subjects. In this study, in which the leisure activity scale developed by Özekes (2011) was used, the scale was translated into German and Albanian. During data collection, the scale was applied in German to Germans, Albanian to Albanians, and Turkish to Turks. The leisure activity scale was applied to the subjects in different social environments or schools in the countries they lived in, randomly selected among individuals who volunteered to participate in the research. The results of the one-way ANOVA analysis showed that there was a significant difference (P<.001) in all sub-areas of the leisure activity scale among the ethnic groups participating in the research. Dunnet test for artistic, social and physical leisure activity subscales in posthock analyzes in order to determine from which groups this significant difference was found; LSD multiple comparison tests were performed for intellectual, practical and self-care subscales. As a result of the multiple comparison tests, it was found that German adolescents differed significantly from Turkish adolescents in all leisure activities. Likewise, it has been found that there are significant differences in social, intellectual, practical and self-care activities between ethnic groups living in Kosovo, Turks and Albanians. When the findings are evaluated in general, it has been evaluated that the level of participation in leisure activities is more related to the values of the ethnic group to which they belong, than the dominant culture of the country in which they live. Adolescent individuals show a tendency to participate in leisure activities that fit the ethnic cultural values of their families and in which they grew up. Although socio-economic level was not measured in this study, this difference between ethnic groups is not related to socio-economic level, but it is thought that this distinction may be due to vital and communicative differences between different ethnic groups. . Since the participation of adolescents in leisure activities in a country like our country, where different ethnic groups live, may be related to their own cultural values, it has been emphasized that the creation of joint leisure time activities during adolescence may positively affect inter-ethnic relations in terms of strengthening intercultural relations among adolescents.

References

  • Arnon, S. Shamai, S. & Ilatov, Z (2008) Socialization agents and activities of young adolescents. Adolesence 43 (170) 373-397.
  • Büküşoğlu, N. ve Bayturan, A.F. (2005). Serbest Zaman etkinliklerinin gençlerin psikososyal durumlarına ilişkin algısı üzerindeki rolü. Ege Tıp Dergisi, 44 (3), 173-177
  • Caldwell, L L. & Darling, N. (1999). Leisure context, parental control and resistance to peer pressure as predictors of adolescent partying and substance abuse. An ecological perspectıve. Journal of Leisure Research, 31 (1) 55-77.
  • Caldwell, L L, Baldwin, C.K. Walls, T. & Smith, E. (2004). Preliminary effects o f a leisure education program to promote healthy use of free time among middle school adolescents. Journal of Leisure Research, 36 (3) 310-335.
  • Chilsholm, L. & Hurrelmann, K.(1995) Adolescence in modern europe: pluralized transition patterns and their ımplications for personal and social risk. Journal of Adolescence 18 (2), 129-158 doi.org/10.1006/Jado.1995.1010
  • Coatsworth, J.D., Sharp, E. H., Palen, L.A., Darling, N., Cumsille, P. & Marta, E. (2005). Exploring adolescent self-defining Leisure activities and identity experience across three countries. International Journal Of Behavioral Development 29(5) 361-370.
  • Çifçi, S. & Kumcağız, H. (2023). The relationship between fear of missing out and subjective well-being in adolescent: The mediating role of social comparison and loneliness, E-International Journal of Educational Research, 14 (2), 83-101.
  • Darling, N., Caldwell, L.L. & Smith, R. (2005). Participation in school-based extra curricular activities and adolescent adjustment. Journal of Leisure Research, 37(1) 51-76.
  • Floyd, M. F. & Shinew, K. I. (1999). Convergence and divergence in leisure style among whites and African Americans: Toward an interracial contact hypothesis. Journal of Leisure research. 33 (4) 359-384.
  • Iso-Ahola, S. E. & Buttimer, K (1981) The emergence of work and leisure ethics from early adolescence to early adulthood, Journal of Leisure Research, 13.
  • Kim, S., Sung, j., Park, J. & Dıttmore,S.W. (2015). The Relationship among leisure attıtude, satisfactiın and psychological well-being among college students. Journal of Physical Education and Sports. 15(1) 70-76.
  • Kleiber, D. A., Larson, R. & Csikszenetmihalyi, M. (1986) The Experience of leisure in adolescence. Journal of Leisure Research. 18 (3) 169-176.
  • Kleiber, D. A Caldwell, L L & Shaw, S. M. (1993). Leisure Meanings in adolescence. society and leisure, 16 (1) 99-114.
  • Kleiber, D. A. (1999). Leisure experience and human development: A dialectical interpretatıon New York: Basic Books
  • Kukk, K., Van Ham, M. & Tammaru, T. (2018 ). Etnicity of leisure: a domains approach to ethnic integration during freetime activities. Journal of Economic and Human Geography. 110 (3) 289-302.
  • Larson, R. (1994). Youth organızatıons, hobbies, and sports as developmental contexts. İn R K Silbereisen ve E. Todt (Eds). Adolescence in context: The interplay of family school peers and work in adjustment. New York: Springer.
  • Özekes, M.(2011) Ergenlik döneminde boş zaman aktivitelerinin incelenmesi. Ege Eğitim dergisi 12(1) 1-21
  • Petronyte, G. & Zaborskis, A.(2009) The influence of individual and regional factors on association between leisure time physical activity and psychological complaints among adolescents in Europe. Central European. Journal of Public Health 17(4) 215-219.
  • Philipp, S. F. ( 1999 ) Are we welcome? African American racial Acceptance in leisure activities and the importance given to children’s leisure. Journal of leisure research. 31 (4) 385-403
  • Robertson, B J. (1999). Leisure and family: perspectives of male adolescents who engage in delinquent activity as leisure. Journal of Leisure Research, 31.
  • Sandahl, D.M (1992). Leisure in our lives: exploring the common leisure occasion. Journal of Leisure Research, 24(1), 19-32
  • Shinew, K.J. , Floyd, M.F. & Parry, D. (2004) Understanding the relationship between Race and leisure activities and constraints: exploring an alternative framework. Leisure Sience, 26: 181-199.
  • Toprakçı, E. (2017) Sınıf yönetimi. Ankara: Pegem Yayınları (3.Baskı)
  • Trainor, S., Delfabbro, P., Anderson, S. & Winefield, A. (2009) Leisure Activities and adolescent psychological well being. Journal of adolescence, 3 (03), 8-13.
  • Tsai, E. H. & Coleman, D. J. (1999 ) Leisure constraints of chinese immigrants: An explonatory study. Society and Leisure. 22. 243-264.
  • Van de Akken, O.B.A. & Lees, S. (2001) . Leisure activities and adolescent sexual behavior. Sex Education 1(2) 137-147.
  • Woodard, M.D. (1988). Class, Regionality and leisure among urban black Americans: The post civil right’s era, Journal of Leisure Research. 20. 87-105

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Studies on Education
Journal Section Educational Sciences and Sciences of Field Education
Authors

Mustafa ÖZEKES 0000-0002-2509-2277

Publication Date June 30, 2023
Published in Issue Year 2023Volume: 14 Issue: 3

Cite

APA ÖZEKES, M. (2023). Ergenlerde Etnik Grup ve Boş Zaman Aktivitesi / Ethnic Group and Leisure Time Activity in Adolescents. E-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi, 14(3), 120-132. https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1280422

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