Research Article
PDF EndNote BibTex RIS Cite

Strategic Readiness as One of the Ways to Cope With Uncertainty during the Pandemic of COVID 19 / Pandemi Döneminde Belirsizlikle Başa Çıkma Yollarından Biri Olarak Stratejik Hazırbulunuşluk

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5, 1 - 20, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1092163

Abstract

Considering that human beings go through many emotional states under uncertain conditions, how people deal with these emotions arouses curiosity. Although it has also positive effects, uncertainty, which usually has negative connotations and may create feelings such as stress, anxiety and despair, appears as an issue that should be put excessive emphasis on. For this very reason, in this study, strategic readiness is discussed as one of the accepted methods to deal with uncertainty itself. Strategic readiness is defined as a planned readiness in the presence of change and unpredictable processes. From this point of view it becomes clear that it is important to make a conscious preparation for all situations that develops or may develop due to uncertainty. This study reveals the teachers' states of being ready and their opinions on how they behave under uncertainty. In this regard, the nine teachers’ opinions were sought by the method of case study. Based on the maximum diversity sample, data were collected from teachers working at primary, secondary and high schools via video calls; and the data were described by content analysis method. According to the research findings, the uncertainty especially during the pandemic created a great need for teachers to make a planned self-regulation. As a matter of fact, the uncertainties experienced left the teachers with feelings such as defenseless, anxious, stressed, pessimistic, fearful and hopeless at first, and made them feel inadequate about what kind of attitude and behavior to improve. Later, these feelings were replaced by some feelings such as indifference, acceptance, ignorance and tides. As a result, the importance of readiness both psychologically and organizationally became prominent, although it is difficult to act in accordance with the rapid changing conditions. It is recommended that school principals keep in communication with teachers; so by this way, It is observed that the intense interaction can minimize the destructive effects created by uncertainty. There is a need for teachers to be guided and support.

References

  • Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., & Mossholder, K. W. (1993). Creating Readiness For Organizational Change. Human Relations, 46(6), 681-703. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726793046006
  • Atalay, A. (2021). Belirsizlik Yönetimi. Psiko-Sosyal Yönleriyle Yönetim (Eds. H.B. Memduhoğlu ve K. Yılmaz). Ankara, PegemA Yayımcılık.
  • Atalay-Mazlum, A. (2019). Belirsizlik yönetimi ve proaktif davranışlar ile ilişkisi. (Yayınlanmamaış Doktora Tezi) Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Türkiye.
  • Berger, C. R. (1986). Uncertain Outcome Values in Predicted Relationships Uncertainty Reduction Theory Then and Now. Human Communication Research, 13(1), 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1986.tb00093.x
  • Berkes, F. (2007). Understanding Uncertainty and Reducing Vulnerability: Lessons from Resilience Thinking. Natural Hazards, 41(2), 283-295.
  • Brashers, D. (2001). Communication and uncertainty management. Journal of Communication. 51(3). 477-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2001.tb02892.x
  • Burt, G., Mackay, D. J., van der Heijden, K., & Verheijdt, C. (2017). Openness disposition: Readiness characteristics that influence participant benefits from scenario planning as strategic conversation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 16-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.024
  • Chonko, L. B., Jones, E., Roberts, J. A., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2002). The role of environmental turbulence, readiness for change, and salesperson learning in the success of sales force change. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(4), 227-245. DOI: 10.1080/08853134.2002.10754311
  • Clampitt, P. G., & Dekoch, R. J. (2001). Embracing uncertainty: The essence of leadership. New York, ME Sharpe.
  • Cunningham, C. E., Woodward, C. A., Shannon, H. S., MacIntosh, J., Lendrum, B., Rosenbloom, D., & Brown, J. (2002). Readiness for organizational change: a longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Ppsychology, 75(4), 377-392.
  • Fidan, T., & Balcı, A. (2016). Principal proactivity: School principals’ proactive. In . (Ed. Ş. Ş. Erçetin) Applied Chaos and Complexity Theory in Education. (pp. 29-58). Information Science Imprint-IGI Global.
  • Fidel, R. (1984). The case study method: A case study. Library and Information Science Research, 6(3), 273-288.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th Ed.) McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
  • Friedman, N., Getoor, L., Koller, D., & Pfeffer, A. (1999). Learning probabilistic relational models. Proc. IJCAI. Uncertainty and Probabilistic Reasoning. 1300-1307.
  • Geckle, L. S. (2015). Dealing with uncertainty: the ımportance of strategic communication. Retrieved from https://www.army.mil/article/149902/dealing_with_uncertainty_the_importance _of_strategic_communication
  • Gudykunst, W. B. (2006). Anxiety/uncertainty management theory. In (Ed. E. A. Griffin) A first look at communication theory (6th ed., pp. 426-438). McGraw-Hill.
  • Haque, M. M. (2008). A study of the relationship between the learning organization and organizational readiness for change. (Doctoral Dissertetion). Pepperdine University.
  • Helsing, D. (2007). Style of knowing regarding uncertainties. Curriculum Inquiry, 37(1), 33-70.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International studies of management & organization, 10(4), 15-41.
  • Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 2307-0919.
  • Horney, N., Pasmore, B., & O'Shea, T. (2010). Leadership agility: A business imperative for a VUCA world. People & Strategy, 33(4), 32–38.
  • Hunt, O., Tourish, D., & Hargie, O. D. (2000). The communication experiences of education managers: identifying strengths, weaknesses and critical incidents. International Journal of Educational Management, 14(3), 120-1
  • James, M. (2018). Strategic Readiness. The ınternational encyclopedia of strategic communication, (1-5). Robert L.Heath and Winni Johansen (Editors-in-Chief), Jesper Falkheimer, Kirk Hallahan, Juliana J. C. Raupp, and Benita Steyn (Associate Editors). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/9781119010722.iesc0178
  • Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2004a). Measuring the strategic readiness of intangible assets. Harvard business review, 82(2), 52-63.
  • Kaplan, R. S., &Norton,D. P. (2004b).The strategymap: Guide to aligning intangible assets. Strategy & Leadership, 32(5), 10–17.
  • Koh, C. E., Prybutok, V. R., Ryan, S., & Ibragimova, B. (2006). The importance of strategic readiness in an emerging e‐government environment. Business Process Management Journal. 12(1). 22-33.
  • Lind, E. A., & Van den Bos, K. (2002). When fairness works: toward a general theory of uncertainty management. Research In Organizational Behavior, 24, 181-223.
  • Livingston, S. M. (1997). School admınıstrators' perceptıons of envıronmental turbulence and organızatıonal response. (Doctoral Dissertation). Faculty of the College of Education. University of Houston, Texas, USA.
  • McMullen, J. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31,132-152.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). A replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14(2), 161-171.
  • Mirabeau, L., & Maguire, S. (2014). From autonomous strategic behavior to emergent strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 35(8), 1202–1229.
  • Nikolaidis, E., Mourelatos, Z. P., & Pandey, V. (2011). Design decisions under uncertainty with limited ınformation: structures and ınfrastructures book series, Vol. 7. CRC Press.
  • Rimita, K., Hoon, S. N., & Levasseur, R. (2020). Leader readiness in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous business environment. Journal of Social Change, 12(1), 2.
  • Schmitz, L., & Weber, W. (2014). Are Hofstede's dimensions valid? A test for measurement invariance of uncertainty avoidance. interculture journal: Online-Zeitschrift für interkulturelle Studien, 13(22), 11-26.
  • Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1999). Profiles of strategic information systems planning. Information Systems Research, 10(3), 199-232.
  • Smith, L. W. (2016). Managıng reform efforts in tımes of uncertaınty: effects of prıncıpal support and leadershıp on teachers’ ımplementatıon commıtment to common core reform ınıtıatıves. (Doctoral Dissertation) Department of Educational Administration and Supervisionof the College of Education and Health Professions. University of Arkansas, USA.
  • Smithson, M. (2008). The many faces and masks of uncertainty. In Uncertainty and Risk (pp. 13-26) (Eds. G. Bammer and. M. Smithson). Earthsca.
  • Song, Y. (2008). Leadership behaviors and human resource development in public sector organizations under conditions of organizational uncertainty: comparative organizational study between us and korea. (Doctoral Dissertation). State University of New York at Albany.
  • Suls, J., & Mullen, B. (1981). Life events, perceived control and ıllness: the role of uncertainty. Journal of Human Stress, 7(2), 30-34.
  • Van den Bos, K. (2009). Making sense of life: the existential self trying to deal with personal uncertainty. Psychological Inquiry, 20(4), 197-217.
  • Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of international business studies, 41(8), 1294-1315.
  • Waldman, D. A., Ramirez, G. G., House, R. J., & Puranam, P. (2001). Does leadership matter? CEO Leadership attributes and profitability under conditions of perceived environmental uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 134-143.
  • Walker, J. F. (1987). A partial theory of organizational control. department of administration and higher education University of Louisville (Doctortoral Dissertation). University of Louisville. Louisville, Kentucky.

Pandemi Döneminde Belirsizlikle Başa Çıkma Yollarından Biri Olarak Stratejik Hazırbulunuşluk / Strategic Readiness as One of the Ways to Cope With Uncertainty during the Pandemic of COVID 19

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5, 1 - 20, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1092163

Abstract

Belirsiz koşullar altında bireyin pek çok duygu durumundan geçtiği göz önüne alındığında insanların bu duygularla nasıl başa çıktığı merak uyandırmaktadır. Olumlu etkileri de olsa genellikle olumsuz çağrışımlar yapan ve bireyin kendisinde stres, kaygı ve çaresizlik gibi hisler yaratabilen belirsizlik, üzerinde önemle durulması gereken bir konu olarak belirmektedir. Tam da bu sebeple çalışmada belirsizliğin kendisiyle başa çıkmak üzere kabul edilen yöntemlerden biri olarak stratejik hazırbulunuşluk konu edinilmiştir. Stratejik hazırbulunuşluk kimi zaman değişim kimi zaman da öngörülemeyen süreçler karşısında planlı bir şekilde hazır olma hali olarak tanımlanabilir. Bu hazırlıklı olma hali, bireyde başta zihinsel olmak üzere pek çok düzeyde konfor sağlamakta ve kişiyi nispeten daha sağlıklı bir süreçten geçirmektedir. Buradan hareketle belirsizlikten kaynaklı gelişen veya gelişebilecek tüm durumlara yönelik bilinçli bir hazırlık yapmanın önemi ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bu çalışma öğretmenlerin belirsizlik altında stratejik olarak hazırlıklı olma halini ve bu doğrultuda nasıl hareket ettiklerine yönelik görüşlerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamıştır. Bu kapsamda nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden durum çalışması yoluyla dokuz öğretmenin görüşlerine başvurulmuştur. Maksimum çeşitlilik örnekleminin temel alındığı araştırmada ilkokul, ortaokul ve lise düzeyinde görev yapan üçer öğretmenden görüntülü görüşmeler yoluyla uzaktan veri toplanmış; veriler içerik analizi yöntemiyle betimlenmiştir. Araştırma bulgularına göre özellikle pandemi sürecinde hâkim olan belirsizliğin öğretmenler üzerinde planlı bir öz düzenleme yapma konusunda büyük bir ihtiyaç yarattığı anlaşılmıştır. Nitekim bu süreçte yaşanan belirsizlikler öğretmenleri ilk etapta savunmasız, kaygılı, stresli, karamsar, korku, umutsuzluk gibi duygular içinde bırakmış, nasıl bir tutum ve davranış geliştirecekleri konusunda yetersiz hissettirmiştir. Daha sonrasında bu duygular yerini kayıtsızlık, kabullenme, görmezden gelme ve gelgitler gibi duygu durumlarına bırakmaktadır. Sonuç olarak her an değişen şartlara uygun olarak hareket etmek güç olsa da hem psikolojik hem de kurumsal bağlamda hazır olmanın ehemmiyeti ortaya çıkmıştır. Bu süreçte okul müdürlerinin öğretmenlerle iletişim halinde olmaları önerilmekte; kurulan yoğun etkileşim halinin belirsizliğin yarattığı yıkıcı etkileri en aza indirebildiği anlaşılmaktadır. Bu doğrultuda öğretmenlerin yönlendirilmesine ve destek sunulmasına ihtiyaç duyulmaktadır.

References

  • Armenakis, A. A., Harris, S. G., & Mossholder, K. W. (1993). Creating Readiness For Organizational Change. Human Relations, 46(6), 681-703. https://doi.org/10.1177/0018726793046006
  • Atalay, A. (2021). Belirsizlik Yönetimi. Psiko-Sosyal Yönleriyle Yönetim (Eds. H.B. Memduhoğlu ve K. Yılmaz). Ankara, PegemA Yayımcılık.
  • Atalay-Mazlum, A. (2019). Belirsizlik yönetimi ve proaktif davranışlar ile ilişkisi. (Yayınlanmamaış Doktora Tezi) Ankara Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü, Türkiye.
  • Berger, C. R. (1986). Uncertain Outcome Values in Predicted Relationships Uncertainty Reduction Theory Then and Now. Human Communication Research, 13(1), 34-38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1986.tb00093.x
  • Berkes, F. (2007). Understanding Uncertainty and Reducing Vulnerability: Lessons from Resilience Thinking. Natural Hazards, 41(2), 283-295.
  • Brashers, D. (2001). Communication and uncertainty management. Journal of Communication. 51(3). 477-97. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2001.tb02892.x
  • Burt, G., Mackay, D. J., van der Heijden, K., & Verheijdt, C. (2017). Openness disposition: Readiness characteristics that influence participant benefits from scenario planning as strategic conversation. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 124, 16-25. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.techfore.2016.11.024
  • Chonko, L. B., Jones, E., Roberts, J. A., & Dubinsky, A. J. (2002). The role of environmental turbulence, readiness for change, and salesperson learning in the success of sales force change. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 22(4), 227-245. DOI: 10.1080/08853134.2002.10754311
  • Clampitt, P. G., & Dekoch, R. J. (2001). Embracing uncertainty: The essence of leadership. New York, ME Sharpe.
  • Cunningham, C. E., Woodward, C. A., Shannon, H. S., MacIntosh, J., Lendrum, B., Rosenbloom, D., & Brown, J. (2002). Readiness for organizational change: a longitudinal study of workplace, psychological and behavioural correlates. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Ppsychology, 75(4), 377-392.
  • Fidan, T., & Balcı, A. (2016). Principal proactivity: School principals’ proactive. In . (Ed. Ş. Ş. Erçetin) Applied Chaos and Complexity Theory in Education. (pp. 29-58). Information Science Imprint-IGI Global.
  • Fidel, R. (1984). The case study method: A case study. Library and Information Science Research, 6(3), 273-288.
  • Fraenkel, J. R., Wallen, N. E., & Hyun, H. H. (2012). How to design and evaluate research in education (8th Ed.) McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
  • Friedman, N., Getoor, L., Koller, D., & Pfeffer, A. (1999). Learning probabilistic relational models. Proc. IJCAI. Uncertainty and Probabilistic Reasoning. 1300-1307.
  • Geckle, L. S. (2015). Dealing with uncertainty: the ımportance of strategic communication. Retrieved from https://www.army.mil/article/149902/dealing_with_uncertainty_the_importance _of_strategic_communication
  • Gudykunst, W. B. (2006). Anxiety/uncertainty management theory. In (Ed. E. A. Griffin) A first look at communication theory (6th ed., pp. 426-438). McGraw-Hill.
  • Haque, M. M. (2008). A study of the relationship between the learning organization and organizational readiness for change. (Doctoral Dissertetion). Pepperdine University.
  • Helsing, D. (2007). Style of knowing regarding uncertainties. Curriculum Inquiry, 37(1), 33-70.
  • Hofstede, G. (1980). Culture and organizations. International studies of management & organization, 10(4), 15-41.
  • Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online readings in psychology and culture, 2(1), 2307-0919.
  • Horney, N., Pasmore, B., & O'Shea, T. (2010). Leadership agility: A business imperative for a VUCA world. People & Strategy, 33(4), 32–38.
  • Hunt, O., Tourish, D., & Hargie, O. D. (2000). The communication experiences of education managers: identifying strengths, weaknesses and critical incidents. International Journal of Educational Management, 14(3), 120-1
  • James, M. (2018). Strategic Readiness. The ınternational encyclopedia of strategic communication, (1-5). Robert L.Heath and Winni Johansen (Editors-in-Chief), Jesper Falkheimer, Kirk Hallahan, Juliana J. C. Raupp, and Benita Steyn (Associate Editors). John Wiley & Sons, Inc. DOI: 10.1002/9781119010722.iesc0178
  • Kaplan, R. S., & Norton, D. P. (2004a). Measuring the strategic readiness of intangible assets. Harvard business review, 82(2), 52-63.
  • Kaplan, R. S., &Norton,D. P. (2004b).The strategymap: Guide to aligning intangible assets. Strategy & Leadership, 32(5), 10–17.
  • Koh, C. E., Prybutok, V. R., Ryan, S., & Ibragimova, B. (2006). The importance of strategic readiness in an emerging e‐government environment. Business Process Management Journal. 12(1). 22-33.
  • Lind, E. A., & Van den Bos, K. (2002). When fairness works: toward a general theory of uncertainty management. Research In Organizational Behavior, 24, 181-223.
  • Livingston, S. M. (1997). School admınıstrators' perceptıons of envıronmental turbulence and organızatıonal response. (Doctoral Dissertation). Faculty of the College of Education. University of Houston, Texas, USA.
  • McMullen, J. S., & Shepherd, D. A. (2006). Entrepreneurial action and role of uncertainty in the theory of the entrepreneur. Academy of Management Review, 31,132-152.
  • Minkov, M., & Hofstede, G. (2014). A replication of Hofstede’s uncertainty avoidance dimension across nationally representative samples from Europe. International Journal of Cross Cultural Management, 14(2), 161-171.
  • Mirabeau, L., & Maguire, S. (2014). From autonomous strategic behavior to emergent strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 35(8), 1202–1229.
  • Nikolaidis, E., Mourelatos, Z. P., & Pandey, V. (2011). Design decisions under uncertainty with limited ınformation: structures and ınfrastructures book series, Vol. 7. CRC Press.
  • Rimita, K., Hoon, S. N., & Levasseur, R. (2020). Leader readiness in a volatile, uncertain, complex, and ambiguous business environment. Journal of Social Change, 12(1), 2.
  • Schmitz, L., & Weber, W. (2014). Are Hofstede's dimensions valid? A test for measurement invariance of uncertainty avoidance. interculture journal: Online-Zeitschrift für interkulturelle Studien, 13(22), 11-26.
  • Segars, A. H., & Grover, V. (1999). Profiles of strategic information systems planning. Information Systems Research, 10(3), 199-232.
  • Smith, L. W. (2016). Managıng reform efforts in tımes of uncertaınty: effects of prıncıpal support and leadershıp on teachers’ ımplementatıon commıtment to common core reform ınıtıatıves. (Doctoral Dissertation) Department of Educational Administration and Supervisionof the College of Education and Health Professions. University of Arkansas, USA.
  • Smithson, M. (2008). The many faces and masks of uncertainty. In Uncertainty and Risk (pp. 13-26) (Eds. G. Bammer and. M. Smithson). Earthsca.
  • Song, Y. (2008). Leadership behaviors and human resource development in public sector organizations under conditions of organizational uncertainty: comparative organizational study between us and korea. (Doctoral Dissertation). State University of New York at Albany.
  • Suls, J., & Mullen, B. (1981). Life events, perceived control and ıllness: the role of uncertainty. Journal of Human Stress, 7(2), 30-34.
  • Van den Bos, K. (2009). Making sense of life: the existential self trying to deal with personal uncertainty. Psychological Inquiry, 20(4), 197-217.
  • Venaik, S., & Brewer, P. (2010). Avoiding uncertainty in Hofstede and GLOBE. Journal of international business studies, 41(8), 1294-1315.
  • Waldman, D. A., Ramirez, G. G., House, R. J., & Puranam, P. (2001). Does leadership matter? CEO Leadership attributes and profitability under conditions of perceived environmental uncertainty. Academy of Management Journal, 44(1), 134-143.
  • Walker, J. F. (1987). A partial theory of organizational control. department of administration and higher education University of Louisville (Doctortoral Dissertation). University of Louisville. Louisville, Kentucky.

Details

Primary Language Turkish
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Issue Articles
Authors

Ayşegül ATALAY MAZLUM> (Primary Author)
It is not affiliated with an institution
0000-0003-3079-801X
Türkiye

Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5

Cite

APA Atalay Mazlum, A. (2022). Pandemi Döneminde Belirsizlikle Başa Çıkma Yollarından Biri Olarak Stratejik Hazırbulunuşluk / Strategic Readiness as One of the Ways to Cope With Uncertainty during the Pandemic of COVID 19 . e-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi , 13 (5) , 1-20 . DOI: 10.19160/e-ijer.1092163

Creative Commons Lisansı
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)


editor@e-ijer.com                http://www.e-ijer.com            Ege University, Faculty of Education, Eğitim Sciences Departmant, 35040 Bornova / İzmir