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The Effects of Age, Gender, and Temperament Traits on School Adjustment for Preschool Children

Year 2014, Volume 5, Issue 2, 54 - 66, 22.05.2014
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.55208

Abstract

The aim of this study is to examine the relation between age, gender and temperamental traits (approach-withdrawal, persistence, rhythmicity and reactivity) of 5-6 year old
children and school adjustment. The sample of the study consists of 91 children selected by simple random sampling method among children attending preschool education classes at the city of Çorum in Turkey. Data of the study was collected by Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment developed by Ladd, Kochenderfer and Coleman (1996) and The Short Temperament Scale for Children developed by Prior, Sanson & Oberklaid (1989). Teachers of the children were asked to complete the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for each child in their classroom. Also, parents were asked to complete Short Temperament Scale for Children to determine the temperament traits of their child. Results of the study reveal that there are significant relations between age, temperamental traits and school adjustment among 5-6 year old children. However, gender has not been found to correlate directly with school adjustment.

References

  • Akman,B., Baydemir,G., & Akyol, T. (2011). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin sınıfta karşılaştıkları sorun davranışlara ilişkin düşünceleri. E-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Education Sciences, 6(2), 1715-1731.
  • Blair, K.A., Denham, S.A., Kochanoff, A., & Whipple, B. (2004). Playing it cool: Temperament, emotion regulation, and social behavior in preschoolers. Journal of School Psychology, 42(6), 419-443.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P.A. (2006). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon and R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development, 6th Edition (pp. 993–1028). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bart, O., Hajami, D., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2007). Predicting school adjustment from motor abilities in kindergarten. Infant and Child Development, 16(6), 597–615
  • Carey, W.B., Fox, M., & McDevitt, S.C. (1977). Temperament as a factor in early school adjustment. Paediatrics, 60(4),621-624.
  • Campbell, S.B. (2006). Maladjustment in preschool children: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In McCartney, K., & Philips, D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development, (pp. 358- 377). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Çıkrıkçı, S. (1999). Ankara İl Merkezinde Resmi Banka Anaokullarına Devam Eden 5-6 Yaş Çocuklarının Okul Olgunluğu ile Aile Tutumu Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi, Gazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara (Turkish).
  • Datar, A. (2006). Does delaying kindergarten entrance give children a head start? Economics of Education Review, 25(1), 43-62.
  • Dunlop, A.W. (2000). Perspectives on the child as a learner: Should educators' views ofpreschool and primary children differ? Paper presented at the EECERA 10th EuropeanConference on Quality in Early Childhood Education, London, August 29- September 1.
  • Erkan, S. (2011). Farklı sosyo-ekonomik düzeydeki ilköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okula hazır bulunuşluklarının incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,40, 186-197.
  • Fabian, H. (2000). A seamless transition. Paper presented at the EECERA 10th EuropeanConference on Quality in Early Childhood Education, London, August 29 - September 1.
  • Gülay, H. (2011a). School adjustment and peer relationships of 5-6 years old children. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 10(36), 1-10.
  • Gülay, H. (2011b). Assessment of the school adjustment of 5-6 year old kindergarten children from the perspective of social skills. E-journal of New World Sciences Academy, 6(1), 139-146.
  • Keenan, K., Wakschlag, L. (2003). Identifying behaviour problems in young children. Bulletin of The Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development, 2(1), 1-5.
  • Keogh, B.K. (2003). Temperament in the classroom: Understanding individual differences. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Klein, H.A. (1982). The relationship between children's temperament and adjustment to kindergartenand head start settings. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 112(2), 259-268.
  • Koomen, H.M.Y., Van Leeuwen, M.G.P., & Van der leij, A. (2004). Does well-being contribute to performance? Emotional security, teacher support and learning behaviour in kindergarten. Infant and Child Development, 13(3), 253-275.
  • Kristal, J.(2005). The temperament perspective: Working with children’s behavioral styles. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • Ladd, G.W., Kochenderfer, B.J., & Coleman, C.C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 67(3), 1103–1118.
  • Ladd, G.W., & Burges, K.B. (1999). Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn children during early grade school. Child Development, 70(4), 910-929.
  • Ladd, G.W., Herald, S.L., & Kochel, K.P. (2006). School readiness: Are there social prerequisites? Early Education and Development, 17(1), 115–150.
  • Margetts, K. (2003). Children bring more to school than their backpacks: Starting school down under. Journal of European Early Childhood Education Research Monograph, 1, 5-14.
  • Mendez, J., Fantuzzo, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). Profiles of social competence among low-income African American preschool children. Child Development, 73(4), 1085–1100.
  • Mühlenweg, A., Blomeyer, D., Stichnoth, H., & Laucht, M. (2012). Effects of age at school entry (ASE) on the development of non-cognitive skills: Evidence from psychometric data. Economics of Education Review, 31(3), 68-76.
  • Nelson, B., Martin, R.P., Hodge, S., Havill, V., & Kamphaus, R. (1999). Modeling the prediction of elementary school adjustment from preschool temperament. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 687-700.
  • Ogelman Gülay, H., & Sarıkaya Erten, H. (2013). Examination of school adjustment levels of children receiving preschool education at ages of 5 and 6: A two-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6(7), 417-434.
  • Önder, A., & Gülay, H. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for 5-6 years of children. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), 204-224.
  • Petriwskyj, A., Thorpe, K.J., & Tayler, C.P. (2005). Trends in construction of transition to school in three western regions, 1990–2004. International Journal of Early Years Education, 13(1), 55–69.
  • Pianta, R.C. (1997). Adult-child relationship processes and early schooling. Early Education and Development, 8(1), 11-26.
  • Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian Temperament Project. In GA Kohnstamm,
  • J.E. Bates & M.K. Rothbart (eds). Temperament in childhood.Chichester, Wiley.
  • Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Pathways from infancy to adolescence. Australian temperament project 1983–2000. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Pullis,M., & Cadwell, J. (1982). The influence of children's temperament characteristics onteachers' decision strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 19(2),165-181.
  • Ramey, S.L., Lanzi, R.G., Phillips, M.M., & Ramey, C.T. (1998). Perspectives of former Head Start children and their parents on school and the transition to school. The Elementary School Journal, 98(4), 311-327.
  • Reed-Victor, E. (2004). Individual differences and early school adjustment: Teacher appraisals of young children with special needs. Early Child Development and Care, 174(1), 59–79.
  • Rubin, K.H., Wojslawowicz, J.C., Rose-Krasnor, L., Booth-LaForce, C., & Burgess, K.B. (2006). The best friendships of shy/withdrawn children: Prevalence, stability, and relationship quality. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(2), 143-157.
  • Seven, S. (2010). Attachment and social behaviors in the period of transition from preschool to first grade. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(3), 347-356.
  • Stoeckli, G. (2010). The role of individual and social factors in classroom loneliness. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(1), 28-39.
  • Stipek, D., & Byler, P. (2001). Academic achievement and social behaviors associated with age of entry into kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(2), 175-189.
  • Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., & Elliot, K. (2003). The Effective Provision of PreSchool Education (EPPE) Project: Findings from the pre-school period. London, England: Institute of Education, University of London and SureStart.
  • Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H.G., Hertzig, M.E., & Korn, S. (1963). Behavioural individuality in early childhood. New York: New York University Press.
  • Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H.G. (1968). Temperament and Behavior Disorders in Children. New York: New York University Press.
  • Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and Development. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
  • Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Swanson, J., & Reiser, M. (2008). Prediction of children’s academic competence from their effortful control, relationships, and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 67-77.
  • Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K.S., & Swanson, J. (2010). Prediction of kindergartners’ academic achievement from their effortful control and negative emotionality: Evidence for direct and moderated relations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 550-560.
  • Vandell, D.L., Nenide,L., & Winkle, S.J.V. (2006). Peer relationships in early childhood. In McCartney, K.,& Philips, D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 455- 470). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Yağmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). The role of child temperament, parenting and culture in the
  • development of prosocial behaviors.Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(2), 77-88.
  • Yoleri, S. (2014). Preschool children’s school adjustment: indicators of behaviour problems, gender, and peer victimisation. Education 3–13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 1-11.
  • Zupancic, M., & Kavcic, T. (2011). Factor of social adjustment to school: Child’s personality, family and pre-school. Early Child Development and Care, 181(4), 493-504.

Yaş, Cinsiyet ve Mizaç Özelliklerinin Okul Öncesindeki Çocukların Okula Uyumları Üzerindeki Etkileri

Year 2014, Volume 5, Issue 2, 54 - 66, 22.05.2014
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.55208

Abstract

Problem: Okul, aileden sonra çocukların hayatındaki en önemli gelişimsel sistemdir (Bronfenbrenner & Morris, 2006). Çocuğun içinde doğup büyüdüğü ve kendini güvende hissettiği aile ortamından çıkıp, dış dünyaya ve toplumsal çevreye katıldığı ilk yerdir (Akman, Baydemir & Akyol, 2011; Erkan, 2011). Çocukların okula uyum sağlamalarını etkileyen birçok faktör bulunmaktadır. Bunlar arasında çocuk özellikleri (örneğin bilişsel hazırlık, dil becerileri ve mizaç özellikleri); okul ortamı (örneğin öğretmen-çocuk ilişkisi) ve cinsiyet, yaş, sosyo-ekonomik durum gibi demografik faktörler sayılabilir (Birch & Ladd, 1997; McDermott, 1995; RimmKaufman & Pianta, 2000). Mizaç okula uyum ile ilgili olarak dikkat çeken bir faktördür. Cinsiyet okul başarısı ve okula uyumda önemli bir etken olarak tespit edilmiştir (Ramey ve ark., 1998). Wang ve ark. (2008), yaptıkları çalışmada kızların akademik başarılarının ve uyum düzeylerinin erkeklere göre daha yüksek olduğunu belirlemiştir. Yaş okula uyumda etkili olabilecek bir diğer faktördür. Yapılan araştırmalar çocukların yaşları büyüdükçe davranış problemlerinin azaldığı, akran ilişkilerinin, sosyal becerilerinin ve okula uyumlarının arttığınıortaya koymuştur (Campbell, 2006; Vandell ve ark, 2006). 

Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklem grubunu, Çorum il merkezinde Milli Eğitim

Bakanlığı’na bağlı ilköğretim okullarının anasınıflarına devam eden, 5-6 yaş
grubundan 91 çocuk oluşturmuştur. Araştırmada veri toplama araçları olarak
Çocuklar İçin Kısa Mizaç Ölçeği ve 5-6 Yaş Çocukları İçin Okul Uyumu Öğretmen
Değerlendirme Ölçeği kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada veriler çocukların anneleri ve
onların öğretmenlerinden elde edilmiştir. Yaş, cinsiyet ve mizaç özellikleri ile
çocukların okula uyum değişkenleri arasındaki ilişkiyi ortaya koymak amacıyla
Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyon Katsayısı Tekniği uygulanmıştır. Çocukların
yaş, cinsiyet ve mizaç özelliklerinin onların okula uyumları üzerinde yordayıcı
etkisinin bulunup bulunmadığını tespit etmek amacıyla Hiyerarşik Regresyon
Analizi yapılmıştır.
Bulgular: Çalışmanın sonucunda yaş değişkeninin okula uyumda anlamlı bir
yordayıcı olduğu belirlenmiştir. Cinsiyet değişkeni ise ilişkili bulunmamıştır. Buna
karşılık mizaç özelliklerinin çocukların okula uyumları ile ilişkili olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Araştırmanın sonucu özellikle mizacın reaktivite boyutunun okula

uyumun anlamlı bir yordayıcısı olduğunu göstermiştir.
Sonuç ve Öneriler: Okula uyum sağlayarak başarılı, etkili ilişkiler geliştirmek
çocukların temel ihtiyaçları arasındadır (Stoeckli, 2010). Araştırmalar çocuğun mizaç
özellikleri ve sınıf ortamı arasındaki ilişkinin öğretmen tutumu, öğretmen-çocuk
etkileşimini ve çocukların okula uyumlarını etkilediğini göstermektedir (Pullis &
Cadwell,1982). Çeşitli araştırma sonuçları okula uyum sorununun yaşı küçük olan
çocuklarda yaşı büyük olan çocuklara göre daha yaygın olduğunu göstermiştir
(Datar, 2006; Stipek ve Byler, 2001).
Gerek bu araştırmanın bulguları gerekse destekleyici alanyazın tespitleri ışığında,
uygulamacıların, okulun ilk günlerinde mizacı uyumlarını olumsuz etkileyen
özellikleri olan çocuklara farklı alıştırma programları düzenlemeleri yerinde bir
önlem olabilir. Diğer yandan yaşı küçük çocukların yaşı büyük çocuklarla aynı
sınıfta bir araya getirilmemeleri de uyum adına alınabilecek önlemlerden biri olarak
değerlendirilebilir. Bu araştırmanın bir ilde ve çok az bir orandaki katılımcıyla
yapıldığı göz önüne alınarak daha kapsamlı ve farklı illerde benzer çalışmalar
yapılabilir. 

 

References

  • Akman,B., Baydemir,G., & Akyol, T. (2011). Okul öncesi öğretmenlerinin sınıfta karşılaştıkları sorun davranışlara ilişkin düşünceleri. E-Journal of New World Sciences Academy Education Sciences, 6(2), 1715-1731.
  • Blair, K.A., Denham, S.A., Kochanoff, A., & Whipple, B. (2004). Playing it cool: Temperament, emotion regulation, and social behavior in preschoolers. Journal of School Psychology, 42(6), 419-443.
  • Bronfenbrenner, U., & Morris, P.A. (2006). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon and R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. 1: Theoretical models of human development, 6th Edition (pp. 993–1028). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Bart, O., Hajami, D., & Bar-Haim, Y. (2007). Predicting school adjustment from motor abilities in kindergarten. Infant and Child Development, 16(6), 597–615
  • Carey, W.B., Fox, M., & McDevitt, S.C. (1977). Temperament as a factor in early school adjustment. Paediatrics, 60(4),621-624.
  • Campbell, S.B. (2006). Maladjustment in preschool children: A developmental psychopathology perspective. In McCartney, K., & Philips, D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development, (pp. 358- 377). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Çıkrıkçı, S. (1999). Ankara İl Merkezinde Resmi Banka Anaokullarına Devam Eden 5-6 Yaş Çocuklarının Okul Olgunluğu ile Aile Tutumu Arasındaki İlişkinin İncelenmesi, Gazi Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü, Ankara (Turkish).
  • Datar, A. (2006). Does delaying kindergarten entrance give children a head start? Economics of Education Review, 25(1), 43-62.
  • Dunlop, A.W. (2000). Perspectives on the child as a learner: Should educators' views ofpreschool and primary children differ? Paper presented at the EECERA 10th EuropeanConference on Quality in Early Childhood Education, London, August 29- September 1.
  • Erkan, S. (2011). Farklı sosyo-ekonomik düzeydeki ilköğretim birinci sınıf öğrencilerinin okula hazır bulunuşluklarının incelenmesi. Hacettepe Üniversitesi Eğitim Fakültesi Dergisi,40, 186-197.
  • Fabian, H. (2000). A seamless transition. Paper presented at the EECERA 10th EuropeanConference on Quality in Early Childhood Education, London, August 29 - September 1.
  • Gülay, H. (2011a). School adjustment and peer relationships of 5-6 years old children. Electronic Journal of Social Sciences, 10(36), 1-10.
  • Gülay, H. (2011b). Assessment of the school adjustment of 5-6 year old kindergarten children from the perspective of social skills. E-journal of New World Sciences Academy, 6(1), 139-146.
  • Keenan, K., Wakschlag, L. (2003). Identifying behaviour problems in young children. Bulletin of The Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development, 2(1), 1-5.
  • Keogh, B.K. (2003). Temperament in the classroom: Understanding individual differences. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.
  • Klein, H.A. (1982). The relationship between children's temperament and adjustment to kindergartenand head start settings. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 112(2), 259-268.
  • Koomen, H.M.Y., Van Leeuwen, M.G.P., & Van der leij, A. (2004). Does well-being contribute to performance? Emotional security, teacher support and learning behaviour in kindergarten. Infant and Child Development, 13(3), 253-275.
  • Kristal, J.(2005). The temperament perspective: Working with children’s behavioral styles. Baltimore, MD: Brookes.
  • Ladd, G.W., Kochenderfer, B.J., & Coleman, C.C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children’s early school adjustment. Child Development, 67(3), 1103–1118.
  • Ladd, G.W., & Burges, K.B. (1999). Charting the relationship trajectories of aggressive, withdrawn children during early grade school. Child Development, 70(4), 910-929.
  • Ladd, G.W., Herald, S.L., & Kochel, K.P. (2006). School readiness: Are there social prerequisites? Early Education and Development, 17(1), 115–150.
  • Margetts, K. (2003). Children bring more to school than their backpacks: Starting school down under. Journal of European Early Childhood Education Research Monograph, 1, 5-14.
  • Mendez, J., Fantuzzo, J., & Cicchetti, D. (2002). Profiles of social competence among low-income African American preschool children. Child Development, 73(4), 1085–1100.
  • Mühlenweg, A., Blomeyer, D., Stichnoth, H., & Laucht, M. (2012). Effects of age at school entry (ASE) on the development of non-cognitive skills: Evidence from psychometric data. Economics of Education Review, 31(3), 68-76.
  • Nelson, B., Martin, R.P., Hodge, S., Havill, V., & Kamphaus, R. (1999). Modeling the prediction of elementary school adjustment from preschool temperament. Personality and Individual Differences, 26, 687-700.
  • Ogelman Gülay, H., & Sarıkaya Erten, H. (2013). Examination of school adjustment levels of children receiving preschool education at ages of 5 and 6: A two-year longitudinal study. The Journal of Academic Social Science Studies, 6(7), 417-434.
  • Önder, A., & Gülay, H. (2010). Reliability and validity of the Teacher Rating Scale of School Adjustment for 5-6 years of children. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 2(1), 204-224.
  • Petriwskyj, A., Thorpe, K.J., & Tayler, C.P. (2005). Trends in construction of transition to school in three western regions, 1990–2004. International Journal of Early Years Education, 13(1), 55–69.
  • Pianta, R.C. (1997). Adult-child relationship processes and early schooling. Early Education and Development, 8(1), 11-26.
  • Prior, M., Sanson, A., & Oberklaid, F. (1989). The Australian Temperament Project. In GA Kohnstamm,
  • J.E. Bates & M.K. Rothbart (eds). Temperament in childhood.Chichester, Wiley.
  • Prior, M., Sanson, A., Smart, D., & Oberklaid, F. (2000). Pathways from infancy to adolescence. Australian temperament project 1983–2000. Melbourne: Australian Institute of Family Studies.
  • Pullis,M., & Cadwell, J. (1982). The influence of children's temperament characteristics onteachers' decision strategies. American Educational Research Journal, 19(2),165-181.
  • Ramey, S.L., Lanzi, R.G., Phillips, M.M., & Ramey, C.T. (1998). Perspectives of former Head Start children and their parents on school and the transition to school. The Elementary School Journal, 98(4), 311-327.
  • Reed-Victor, E. (2004). Individual differences and early school adjustment: Teacher appraisals of young children with special needs. Early Child Development and Care, 174(1), 59–79.
  • Rubin, K.H., Wojslawowicz, J.C., Rose-Krasnor, L., Booth-LaForce, C., & Burgess, K.B. (2006). The best friendships of shy/withdrawn children: Prevalence, stability, and relationship quality. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34(2), 143-157.
  • Seven, S. (2010). Attachment and social behaviors in the period of transition from preschool to first grade. Social Behavior and Personality, 38(3), 347-356.
  • Stoeckli, G. (2010). The role of individual and social factors in classroom loneliness. The Journal of Educational Research, 103(1), 28-39.
  • Stipek, D., & Byler, P. (2001). Academic achievement and social behaviors associated with age of entry into kindergarten. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 22(2), 175-189.
  • Sylva, K., Melhuish, E., Sammons, P., Siraj-Blatchford, I., Taggart, B., & Elliot, K. (2003). The Effective Provision of PreSchool Education (EPPE) Project: Findings from the pre-school period. London, England: Institute of Education, University of London and SureStart.
  • Thomas, A., Chess, S., Birch, H.G., Hertzig, M.E., & Korn, S. (1963). Behavioural individuality in early childhood. New York: New York University Press.
  • Thomas, A., Chess, S., & Birch, H.G. (1968). Temperament and Behavior Disorders in Children. New York: New York University Press.
  • Thomas, A., & Chess, S. (1977). Temperament and Development. New York: Bruner/Mazel.
  • Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K., Swanson, J., & Reiser, M. (2008). Prediction of children’s academic competence from their effortful control, relationships, and classroom participation. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100(1), 67-77.
  • Valiente, C., Lemery-Chalfant, K.S., & Swanson, J. (2010). Prediction of kindergartners’ academic achievement from their effortful control and negative emotionality: Evidence for direct and moderated relations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 102(3), 550-560.
  • Vandell, D.L., Nenide,L., & Winkle, S.J.V. (2006). Peer relationships in early childhood. In McCartney, K.,& Philips, D. (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of early childhood development (pp. 455- 470). Malden, MA: Blackwell.
  • Yağmurlu, B., & Sanson, A. (2009). The role of child temperament, parenting and culture in the
  • development of prosocial behaviors.Australian Journal of Psychology, 61(2), 77-88.
  • Yoleri, S. (2014). Preschool children’s school adjustment: indicators of behaviour problems, gender, and peer victimisation. Education 3–13: International Journal of Primary, Elementary and Early Years Education, 1-11.
  • Zupancic, M., & Kavcic, T. (2011). Factor of social adjustment to school: Child’s personality, family and pre-school. Early Child Development and Care, 181(4), 493-504.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Social
Journal Section Educational Sciences and Sciences of Field Education
Authors

Yrd.doç.dr.sibel YOLERİ>

Publication Date May 22, 2014
Published in Issue Year 2014, Volume 5, Issue 2

Cite

APA Yoleri, Y. (2014). The Effects of Age, Gender, and Temperament Traits on School Adjustment for Preschool Children . e-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi , 5 (2) , 54-66 . DOI: 10.19160/e-ijer.55208
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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)