Rapidly changing world conditions and technology which develops in parallel with this bring along as many difficulties as easiness. All problems we face in the real world are defined as “non-routine problems” which do not have a single answer (Altun, 2000). We need creative thinking to solve such problems. Torrance (1965) defines creative thinking as being sensitive to problems, developing assumptions by defining difficulty and telling the result to others. Tardif and Sternberg (1988, cited in Cropley, 2001) point out the importance of sensitiveness to problems in creative thinking. Guilford (1959, cited in Cropley, 2001) establishes a direct relation between creative thinking and problem solving. The aim of this study is to reveal the relation between creative thinking and problem solving skills.
Method: In this study, correlation analysis method was used. The method studies the relation between two variables (Punch, 2005). Pearson correlation coefficient (r) calculated for two variables can be defined as high (0.70-1.00), medium (0.70-0.30) and low (0.30-0.00) (Büyüköztürk, 2003). The study group of the study is composed of 108 7th graders. The study was carried out in the fall semester of the 2009- 2010 education year. Torrance Test of Creative Thinking (TTCT) verbal and figural forms and problem solving inventory (PSI) were used for data collection. Data obtained in the study were analyzed using correlation technique in SPSS 15.0 package program.
Results and Discussion: According to the result of the study, it was seen that there is a significant relation between creative thinking skills and problem solving skills. While this result contributes the findings of İnceoğlu and Koşar's (2008) and Burnard and Yonker's (2004) studies in the relevant literature, it is not compatible with the findings of Bekci and Erdoğan's (2007) study. Low level of relation (r:0.240) found in the study could be taken to indicate a weak relation between creative thinking skills and problem solving skills. This finding can be attributed to the “convergent thinking”-based education students receive at school for solving routine problems with precise, clear and single answer. However, according to Gartenhaus (2000), “divergent thinking” intended to find solutions for non-routine problems are the source of creative thinking. Another reason why the relation level is low can be early puberty period. In the early periods of puberty (ages 11-14), adolescent can see probable relations to solve a problem but cannot make a plan that leads to the solution (M.E.B. 2001). Another finding of this study is that when the relation between creative thinking skill and problem solving skill is examined in terms of gender, it was found that while there was a significant relation between these skills of female students, there was not any significant relation between these skills of male students.
This finding is compatible with the findings of the study by Pakaslahti et al. in which they examined the relation between “positive social behavior and problem solving”. In this study, Pakaslahti et al. reported that adolescent girls used more problems solving ways compared to males. As females reach puberty 1 and a half and 2 years earlier than males, developmental differences between males and females in this period are to be considered (Senemoğlu, 2002). It can be said that their cognitive developments can be different as the two genders experience different developmental periods.
Conclusion and Suggestions: As a result of this study, it was found that there was a significant but low relation between students' creative thinking skills and problem solving skills. According to this result, it can be said that as creative thinking skills develop, problem solving skills develop, partially tough.
The aim of education is to raise individuals who can think creatively and solve problems they encounter. It can be said that providing 'divergent thinking'-based education rather than 'convergent thinking'-based education in schools can have a significant contribution to creative thinking skills. As the relation between students' skills varied in terms of gender, it can be suggested that verbal, figural and motor techniques are to be used in a balanced way as a part of teaching methods used in the school.
Further studies in this issue can include experimental studies which examine the relation between problem solving skills and creative thinking skills in environments where divergent-thinking based education is provided. Replication of this study with different samples of students at ages 13 to 14, which is known early puberty, can be suggested as it can reveal the role gender variable plays in the relation between creative thinking skills and problem solving skills of female and male students.
Özet Bu çalışmanın amacı; öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünme becerileri ile problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişkiyi belirlemektir. Araştırmanın çalışma grubunu 2009-2010 Eğitim-Öğretim yılı, güz dönemi, ilköğretim 7. sınıfa devam eden toplam 108 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada tarama modellerinden korelasyon analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verilerini toplama aracı olarak Torrance Yaratıcı Düşünme Testi (TYDT) Sözel ve Şekilsel-B formları ve rutin dışı gerçek yaşam problemlerinden oluşan Problem çözme envanteri (PÇE) kullanılmıştır. Araştırmadan elde edilen veriler korelasyon tekniklerinden “Pearson Correlation Coefficient” ile değerlendirilmiştir. Elde edilen bulgular incelendiğinde öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünme becerileri ile problem çözme becerileri arasında pozitif yönde ancak, düşük düzeyde ilişki bulunmuştur. Bu sonucun farklı nedenleri olabileceği düşünülmektedir. Özellikle, 13-14 yaş öğrenci grubunun ilk ergenlik döneminde bulundukları dikkate alınırsa, bedensel, bilişsel ve sosyal alanlardaki gelişimleri ile ilgili yaşanan sorunların olumsuz bir yansıması nedenlerden biri olarak görülebilir. Öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünme becerileri ile problem çözme becerileri arasındaki ilişki düzeyinin düşük olmasının olası diğer nedeni olarak günümüz eğitim sisteminin ıraksak düşünmeden çok yakınsak düşünme biçimine dayalı olması gösterilebilir. Yakınsak düşünmeye dayalı eğitimin öğrencilerin yaratıcı düşünmelerine ket vuran bir etki yaptığı bilinmektedir. Buna göre, öğrencilerin yaşadığı ergenlik sorunları ve eğitim sisteminin getirdiği bazı olumsuzluklar yaratıcı düşünme ve problem çözme becerileri üzerindeki olumsuz etkileri göz ardı edilmemelidir. Öğrencilerin sahip oldukları becerilerin geliştirilmesinde ıraksak düşünmeye dayalı öğretim modellerinin yararlı olabileceği düşünülmektedir.
|Studies on Education
|Educational Sciences and Sciences of Field Education
|January 11, 2012
|Published in Issue
|Year 2012Volume: 3 Issue: 2