PDF Mendeley EndNote BibTex Cite

THE STUDY OF FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF TURKISH HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM

Year 2010, Volume 1, Issue 1, 18 - 25, 14.04.2010

Abstract

Who will meet the financing of education cost, or in other words sponsorship to education, has traditionally been a social concern as in other teaching steps. Actually, this discussion is closely related to inner and outer obstacles and financial matters as well as required qualifications and efficiency of education. As the scope of the finance in education is the state, the scope of the finance in higher education is the state itself because higher education has been, so far, heavily considered as a public service whose expenses are extensively met through public sources in each country except the USA and several other countries. However, the financing of the cost of the increasing demand to higher education only with social sources is nowadays being interrogated Higher education is a service of high cost. Financing ways of higher education in various countries range a large spectrum from institutions sponsored only by students' contribution fees without any other supports else for institutions whose all higher educational expenses, including feeding and accommodation, are completely met through social sources. Financing of Turkish Higher Education service is mostly handled two different models: the state and foundation universities. The first one, state's universities, have traditionally adopted “a financial system relying on national sourcesâ€? while foundation ones have developed their own “exclusive financingâ€?. Today, budget financing accounts for nearly %80 of the budget allocated for state's universities. In the year 1973, the classical budge system was replaced by “program budget systemâ€?, and then in 1998 was converted into a joint budget system. The current system, analytic budget systemâ€? has been in practice since 2004. However, in foundation universities, the main approach is treasure aids to make contributions to their expenses provided it remains limited with the payment in the budget Despite the increase in the number of students in Turkish Higher Education system, the portion reserved from the state's budget has declined. Therefore, decline in portion of higher education allocated in the budget has also caused our higher education institutions to make up new ways of searching for exclusive sources apart from public, one of which is to increase the fee paid by students. However, such an increase in students' education fee has brought together some discussion concerning “unequal opportunities in higher educationâ€? particularly in terms of groups of middle and lower income. “The income of the higher educationâ€? in Turkish Higher Education system is socially 8.5% and individually 16.2 %. As for the global average of the income of the higher education, it has socially been 10.8% for ages, and individually 19 %. Judging from there figures, we could conclude that the income of investments performed by higher education in Turkey falls back of the global average. Briefly, such a case has turned the efficiency of the allocated financial share for the Turkish Higher Education service into too controversial matter.

References

  • Aktan, C.C. (2007) A chance in higher education: Global trends and new paradigms, Editor: C.C. Aktan, Higher education in the age of change in pp: 1-43, İzmir: Yaşar University Press
  • Ekinci, C. E. (2000). Students’ opinions concerning the approaches stimulating students’ financial contribution to the maintenance of higher education, Education Administration in Theory and Practice, 6 (22), pp: 221–242
  • Ergen, Z. (2006) The way of student’s debating in finance of higher education system, Social Sciences Journal of Çukurova University, 5 (1), pp: 133-150
  • Gürüz, K. (2001). Higher education in Turkey and world (A history and current administration system) Ankara: OSYM Publishing, Publishing No: 4
  • Gürüz, K, (Coordinator) & Şuhubi, E. A. M. & Şengör, C. & Türker, K. & Yurtsever, E. (1994). Higher education in Turkey and world, science and technology, Istanbul: TÜSİAD
  • Güven, İ. (2002) Constructional changes in light of new advancements, The Journal of Education Sciences Faculty Ankara University, 35 (1-2), pp: 93-110
  • Hauptman, A. M. (1993) Higher education finance issues in the early 1990s, CPRE Research Report Series RR-027
  • Johnstone, D.B. (1998) The financing and management of higher education: A status report on worldwide reforms, UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, held in Paris, France on October 5-9, The World Bank, pp: 1-33, Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/educ/postbasc.htm
  • Karataş, S. (2009) A general view to finance policies of higher education within EU countries, University and Society, 9 (1), Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.universite-toplum.org/text.php3?id=385
  • Koç, H. (2007) Finance of education system, The Journal of Education faculty of Industrial Arts Gazi University, 20, pp: 39-50
  • Kuyumcu, A. & Erdoğan, T. (2008) Effect of higher education system to social innovation, The Journal of Education faculty Hacettepe University, 35, pp: 240-250
  • Lee, M. N. (2002). Global Tendencies in education, (Translation by M. Hilmi Baş), Education Sciences in Theory and Practice, 2 (1), pp: 155–168
  • Mary, P. & McKeown, M. (2000) Financing higher education in the new century: The second annual report from the states, Denver
  • Rehber, E. (2007) Mentality of ever changing global higher education system, Editor: C.C. Aktan, Higher education in the age of change in pp: 211-243, İzmir: Yaşar University Press
  • Tural, N. K. (2002) Education financing, Ankara: Anı Publishing
  • __________(2006) Globalization and universities, Ankara: Kök Publishing
  • YÖK (2007) Turkish higher education policy, Ankara: Publishing No: 2007-1
  • Zumeta, W. (2006) The new finance of public higher education, The NEA 2006 Almanac of Higher Education, pp: 37-48
  • Higher education law, registered number 2547 dated 04.11.1981 published on the official newspaper declaration of 17506
  • Another disappointment: The budget of education and training for the year 2009, Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.egitimsenizmir1.org/haberdetay.asp?ID=96

TÜRK YÜKSEKÖĞRETİMİNDE FİNANSMANIN İRDELENMESİ

Year 2010, Volume 1, Issue 1, 18 - 25, 14.04.2010

Abstract

Eğitimin maliyetini kimin karşılayacağı başka deyişle eğitimin finansmanı, diğer öğretim kademelerinde olduğu gibi yükseköğretimde de her zaman tartışma konusu olmuştur. Bu tartışma eğitimin etkililiği ve niteliğiyle, eğitimde karşılaşılan iç ve dış sorunlarla, finansmanda karşılaşılan darboğazlarla yakından ilişkilidir. Eğitimin finansmanının odak noktasında “devlet “ vardır. Yükseköğretimin finansmanının odak noktasında da “devletâ€? vardır. Çünkü yükseköğretim günümüze dek bir kamu hizmeti olarak görülmüş ve giderleri ABD ve diğer birkaç ülke dışında hemen hemen tümüyle kamusal kaynaklardan karşılanmıştır. Ancak yükseköğretime artan talep artışının sadece kamu kaynaklarıyla karşılanması artık sorgulanmaya başlamıştır. Yükseköğretim maliyeti yüksek olan bir eğitim hizmetidir. Çeşitli ülkelerdeki yükseköğretim finansman yöntemleri, kamu kaynaklarından hiç destek almaksızın sadece öğrencilerin ödediği öğrenim ücretleri ile finanse edilen kurumlardan, öğrencilerin beslenme ve barınma giderleri dahil, yükseköğretim giderlerinin tamamen kamu kaynaklarından karşılandığı kurumlara kadar uzanan geniş bir yelpazeyi kapsamaktadır. Türk yükseköğretiminde yükseköğretimin finansmanı devlet ve vakıf üniversiteleri itibarıyla iki ayrı yöntemle yapılmaktadır. Devlet üniversitelerinde “kamusal finansmanâ€?, vakıf üniversitelerinde ise “özel finansmanâ€? sistemi benimsenmiştir. Devlet üniversitelerinin finansman şekli “bütçeyle finansmanâ€? dır. “Bütçe finansmanıâ€? devlet üniversiteleri bütçesinin % 80 nini oluşturmaktadır. 1973 yılında klasik bütçe sisteminden “program bütçe sistemiâ€? ne, 1998 yılında “torba bütçe sistemiâ€? ne, 2004 yılından itibaren de “analitik bütçe sistemiâ€? uygulanmaya başlamıştır. Vakıf üniversitelerine ise giderlerine katkıda bulunmak amacıyla ve bütçedeki ödenekle sınırlı kalmak kaydıyla “hazine yardımı yapılmasıâ€? esastır. Türk yükseköğretiminin finansmanı vergiler yoluyla oluşturulan bütçeden “payâ€? ayrılarak gerçekleştirilmektedir. Öğrenci sayısındaki artışa rağmen bütçeden yükseköğretime ayrılan payın düşmesi yükseköğretimde yeni kaynak arayışlarına yöneltmiştir. Bu yükseköğretim kurumlarımızı kamu kaynakları dışından kaynak bulmaya zorlamaktadır. Bunlardan biri de “öğrenci katkı paylarıâ€? nın artırılmasıdır. Fakat öğrenci katkı paylarının artırılması, orta ve özellikle alt gelir grubu açısından yükseköğretimden yararlanmada “fırsat eşitliği ilkesiniâ€? bozacağı tartışmalarını beraberinde getirmektedir. Türk yükseköğretiminde “yükseköğretimin getirisiâ€? toplumsal % 8.5, bireysel % 16.2 dir. Yükseköğretimin getirisinde dünya ortalaması toplumsal % 10.8, bireysel % 19. dur. Bu sonuca göre Türkiye'de yükseköğretim yatırımlarının getirisi dünya ortalamasının altındadır. Bu durum Türk yükseköğretimine ayrılan finansmanda “etkinliğiâ€? tartışmalı hale getirmektedir.

References

  • Aktan, C.C. (2007) A chance in higher education: Global trends and new paradigms, Editor: C.C. Aktan, Higher education in the age of change in pp: 1-43, İzmir: Yaşar University Press
  • Ekinci, C. E. (2000). Students’ opinions concerning the approaches stimulating students’ financial contribution to the maintenance of higher education, Education Administration in Theory and Practice, 6 (22), pp: 221–242
  • Ergen, Z. (2006) The way of student’s debating in finance of higher education system, Social Sciences Journal of Çukurova University, 5 (1), pp: 133-150
  • Gürüz, K. (2001). Higher education in Turkey and world (A history and current administration system) Ankara: OSYM Publishing, Publishing No: 4
  • Gürüz, K, (Coordinator) & Şuhubi, E. A. M. & Şengör, C. & Türker, K. & Yurtsever, E. (1994). Higher education in Turkey and world, science and technology, Istanbul: TÜSİAD
  • Güven, İ. (2002) Constructional changes in light of new advancements, The Journal of Education Sciences Faculty Ankara University, 35 (1-2), pp: 93-110
  • Hauptman, A. M. (1993) Higher education finance issues in the early 1990s, CPRE Research Report Series RR-027
  • Johnstone, D.B. (1998) The financing and management of higher education: A status report on worldwide reforms, UNESCO World Conference on Higher Education, held in Paris, France on October 5-9, The World Bank, pp: 1-33, Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.worldbank.org/html/extdr/educ/postbasc.htm
  • Karataş, S. (2009) A general view to finance policies of higher education within EU countries, University and Society, 9 (1), Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.universite-toplum.org/text.php3?id=385
  • Koç, H. (2007) Finance of education system, The Journal of Education faculty of Industrial Arts Gazi University, 20, pp: 39-50
  • Kuyumcu, A. & Erdoğan, T. (2008) Effect of higher education system to social innovation, The Journal of Education faculty Hacettepe University, 35, pp: 240-250
  • Lee, M. N. (2002). Global Tendencies in education, (Translation by M. Hilmi Baş), Education Sciences in Theory and Practice, 2 (1), pp: 155–168
  • Mary, P. & McKeown, M. (2000) Financing higher education in the new century: The second annual report from the states, Denver
  • Rehber, E. (2007) Mentality of ever changing global higher education system, Editor: C.C. Aktan, Higher education in the age of change in pp: 211-243, İzmir: Yaşar University Press
  • Tural, N. K. (2002) Education financing, Ankara: Anı Publishing
  • __________(2006) Globalization and universities, Ankara: Kök Publishing
  • YÖK (2007) Turkish higher education policy, Ankara: Publishing No: 2007-1
  • Zumeta, W. (2006) The new finance of public higher education, The NEA 2006 Almanac of Higher Education, pp: 37-48
  • Higher education law, registered number 2547 dated 04.11.1981 published on the official newspaper declaration of 17506
  • Another disappointment: The budget of education and training for the year 2009, Retrieved 01.08.2009 http://www.egitimsenizmir1.org/haberdetay.asp?ID=96

Details

Primary Language English
Journal Section Educational Sciences and Sciences of Field Education
Authors

Doç.dr.ali ERDEM
0000-0001-9704-9529

Publication Date April 14, 2010
Published in Issue Year 2010, Volume 1, Issue 1

Cite

APA Erdem, D. (2010). THE STUDY OF FINANCIAL STRUCTURE OF TURKISH HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM . e-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi , 1 (1) , 18-25 . Retrieved from http://www.e-ijer.com/en/pub/issue/8011/105214
Creative Commons Lisansı
Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)