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Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching: The Case of Turkish /İşe Dayalı Dil Öğretiminde Biçime Odaklanma: Türkçe Örneği

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5, 151 - 164, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1141487

Abstract

This study aims to reveal how task-based and form-focused language teaching materials affect success in teaching Turkish as a foreign language. The study was performed on the assumption that form-focused and task-based language teaching materials, particularly for teaching agglutinative languages, can be designed and can increase student’s success; it investigated to what extent form-focused and task-based materials contribute to the improvement of the use of the target structure. Accordingly, a pretest–posttest design experiment was performed with 54 participants whose mother tongues are different, 27 of whom were placed in the experimental group and 27 in the control group. The material on teaching the (-(y)An) subject relative clause, developed in line with expert opinions encompassing form-focused input enrichment and consciousness-raising tasks, was used with the experimental group, and its contribution to learner success was measured statistically. In the control group, explication regarding the form was done in the form of presentations and no consciousness-raising activities were carried out; the group adhered to the activities in the coursebook. The pretest and posttest results of the participants in the experimental and control groups were evaluated using the SPSS 24 independent samples t-test. It was observed that after the posttest, the experimental group was more successful than the control group was. The findings show that form-focused and task-based practices are more effective in teaching Turkish, an agglutinative language.

References

  • Bandar, F., & Gorjian, B. (2017). Teaching grammar to EFL Learners through focusing on form and meaning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 3(4), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.jalll.20170304.02.
  • Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Çetin, B. (2022). Form-focused foreign language teaching in agglutinating languages: The case of Turkish. Journal of Language Education and Research, 8(1), 207–226. https://doi.org/10.31464/jlere.1067112.
  • Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction, In R. Ellis (Ed.), Form-focused instruction and second language learning (pp. 1–46). Blackwell Publishing.
  • Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 141–172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050096.
  • Ellis, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge and instruction, In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Phlip, & H. Reinders, (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 3–25). Multilingual Matters.
  • Ellis, R. (2016). Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405–428. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816628627.
  • Ellis, R. (2017). Task based language teaching, In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 108–125). Routledge.
  • Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. New York: Routledge.
  • Fotos, S. (2001). Cognitive approaches to grammar instruction, In Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a foreign language (third edn.) (pp. 267–283). Heinle & Heinle.
  • Göçer, A. & Karadağ, B. F. (2020). The importance of task-based learning method in point of communication function of language in teaching Turkish as a foreign. ACU International Journal of Social Science, 6(2), 58-73. DOI:10.22466/acusbd.770305
  • Göksel, A.& Kerslake, C. (2005). Turkish: A comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge
  • Hamamcı, Z., & Hamamcı, E. (2014). Form-focused instruction in foreign language teaching. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 3(1), 37-43
  • Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence, In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected readings (pp. 269–239), Penguin Books.
  • Jourdenais, R., Ota, M., Stauffer, S., Boyson, B., & Doughty, C. (1995). Does textual enhancement promote noticing? A think-aloud protocol analysis, In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. (pp. 183–216). University of Hawaii Press,
  • Karasar, N. (2012). Scientific research methods. Nobel Publications.
  • Kornfilt, J. (2010). Turkish. Routledge.
  • Larsen-Freeman, D. (2002). The grammar of choice, In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 103–118). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Long, M. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology, In K. De Bot, R. Ginsberg & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 39–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.2.07lon
  • Loschky, L., & Bley-Vroman, R. (1993). Grammar and task-based methodology, In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 123–167). Multilingual Matters.
  • Özgen, M. (2008). From grammar to use: A proposal of developing a task-based learning material within the framework. Language Journal, 141, 36-54.
  • Park, E. S. (2004). Constraints of implicit focus on form: Insights from a study of input enhancement. Studies in Aplied Linguitic and TESOL, 4(2), 1-30 https://doi.org/10.7916/salt.v4i2.1591
  • Prabhu, N. (1987). Second language pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rees, G. (2002). Find the gap-increasing speaking in class. Retrieved from https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/find-gap-increasing-speaking-class.
  • Richard, J. C., Platt, J., & Weber, H. (1985). Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. London: Longman.
  • Şahin, M. (2019). The use of task-based language teaching method in developing speaking skills of learning Turkish as a foreign language [Masters Dissertation]. Hacettepe University.
  • Swan, M. (2005). Legistation by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics. 26, 276–401.
  • Ünal, E. (2013). The applicability of planned focus-on-form to French grammar teaching. International Periodical for the languages, literature and history of Turkish or Turkic, 8(10), 685–696.
  • Wajnryb, R., & Maley, A. (1990). Grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Grammar, and nonsense, and learning, In D. Moyer (Ed.), Aspects of language teaching (pp. 79–98). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for task-based learning. London: Longman.

İşe Dayalı Dil Öğretiminde Biçime Odaklanma: Türkçe Örneği / Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching: The Case of Turkish

Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5, 151 - 164, 30.10.2022
https://doi.org/10.19160/e-ijer.1141487

Abstract

Bu çalışmada işe dayalı dil öğretimi ve biçim odaklı hazırlanmış dil öğretim materyallerinin yabancı dil olarak Türkçe öğretiminde başarı oranına etkisini ortaya koymak amaçlanmaktadır. Eklemeli diller için biçime odaklı işe dayalı dil öğretim malzemeleri tasarlanabilir ve bu malzemeler başarıyı arttırabilir varsayımı ile ortaya çıkan bu çalışmada, malzemelerinin uygulanıp başarı oranının değerlendirilmesi amacıyla biçime odaklı işe dayalı dil öğretim uygulamalarının hedef yapının gelişimine katkısının ne oranda olduğu ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır Bu amaç doğrultusunda B1 düzeyini tamamlamış ve B2 düzeyinde öğrenimlerine devam eden 27 deney ve 27 kontrol grubu olmak üzere anadilleri farklı 54 öğrencinin katıldığı bir uygulama yapılmıştır. {-(y)An} özne ortacının (subject relative clause) öğretimine yönelik olarak uzman görüşü ile şekillendirilen biçim odaklı girdinin zenginleştirilmesi ve bilinçlendirme işleri çerçevesinde geliştirilen materyal deney grubuna uygulanmış ve istatistiksel olarak başarıya etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Kontrol grubunda biçime yönelik açıklamalar sunum şeklinde gerçekleştirilmiş ve girdinin zenginleştirilmesi ve bilinçlendirme işleri uygulanmamıştır, sadece kitaptaki etkinliklere bağlı kalınmıştır. Deney ve kontrol grubunun öntest ve sontest sonuçları SPSS 24 programı kullanarak bağımsız örneklem T-test ile değerlendirilmiştir. Yapılan sontestte deney grubunun kontrol grubundan daha başarılı olduğu görülmüştür. Bulgular çerçevesinde eklemeli bir dil olan Türkçenin öğretiminde biçim odaklı ve işe dayalı uygulamaların daha başarılı olduğu yorumu yapılmaktadır.

References

  • Bandar, F., & Gorjian, B. (2017). Teaching grammar to EFL Learners through focusing on form and meaning. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Learning, 3(4), 88–96. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.jalll.20170304.02.
  • Carter, R., & McCarthy, M. (2006). Cambridge grammar of English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Çetin, B. (2022). Form-focused foreign language teaching in agglutinating languages: The case of Turkish. Journal of Language Education and Research, 8(1), 207–226. https://doi.org/10.31464/jlere.1067112.
  • Ellis, R. (2001). Investigating form-focused instruction, In R. Ellis (Ed.), Form-focused instruction and second language learning (pp. 1–46). Blackwell Publishing.
  • Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27(2), 141–172. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263105050096.
  • Ellis, R. (2009). Implicit and explicit learning, knowledge and instruction, In R. Ellis, S. Loewen, C. Elder, R. Erlam, J. Phlip, & H. Reinders, (Eds.), Implicit and explicit knowledge in second language learning, testing and teaching (pp. 3–25). Multilingual Matters.
  • Ellis, R. (2016). Focus on form: A critical review. Language Teaching Research, 20(3), 405–428. https://doi.org/10.1177/1362168816628627.
  • Ellis, R. (2017). Task based language teaching, In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 108–125). Routledge.
  • Ellis, R., & Shintani, N. (2014). Exploring language pedagogy through second language acquisition research. New York: Routledge.
  • Fotos, S. (2001). Cognitive approaches to grammar instruction, In Celce-Murcia (Ed.), Teaching English as a foreign language (third edn.) (pp. 267–283). Heinle & Heinle.
  • Göçer, A. & Karadağ, B. F. (2020). The importance of task-based learning method in point of communication function of language in teaching Turkish as a foreign. ACU International Journal of Social Science, 6(2), 58-73. DOI:10.22466/acusbd.770305
  • Göksel, A.& Kerslake, C. (2005). Turkish: A comprehensive grammar. London: Routledge
  • Hamamcı, Z., & Hamamcı, E. (2014). Form-focused instruction in foreign language teaching. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 3(1), 37-43
  • Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence, In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics: Selected readings (pp. 269–239), Penguin Books.
  • Jourdenais, R., Ota, M., Stauffer, S., Boyson, B., & Doughty, C. (1995). Does textual enhancement promote noticing? A think-aloud protocol analysis, In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning. (pp. 183–216). University of Hawaii Press,
  • Karasar, N. (2012). Scientific research methods. Nobel Publications.
  • Kornfilt, J. (2010). Turkish. Routledge.
  • Larsen-Freeman, D. (2002). The grammar of choice, In E. Hinkel & S. Fotos (Eds.), New perspectives on grammar teaching in second language classrooms (pp. 103–118). New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Long, M. (1991). Focus on form: A design feature in language teaching methodology, In K. De Bot, R. Ginsberg & C. Kramsch (Eds.), Foreign language research in cross-cultural perspectives (pp. 39–52). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company. https://doi.org/10.1075/sibil.2.07lon
  • Loschky, L., & Bley-Vroman, R. (1993). Grammar and task-based methodology, In G. Crookes & S. Gass (Eds.), Tasks and language learning: Integrating theory and practice (pp. 123–167). Multilingual Matters.
  • Özgen, M. (2008). From grammar to use: A proposal of developing a task-based learning material within the framework. Language Journal, 141, 36-54.
  • Park, E. S. (2004). Constraints of implicit focus on form: Insights from a study of input enhancement. Studies in Aplied Linguitic and TESOL, 4(2), 1-30 https://doi.org/10.7916/salt.v4i2.1591
  • Prabhu, N. (1987). Second language pedagogy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Rees, G. (2002). Find the gap-increasing speaking in class. Retrieved from https://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/article/find-gap-increasing-speaking-class.
  • Richard, J. C., Platt, J., & Weber, H. (1985). Longman dictionary of applied linguistics. London: Longman.
  • Şahin, M. (2019). The use of task-based language teaching method in developing speaking skills of learning Turkish as a foreign language [Masters Dissertation]. Hacettepe University.
  • Swan, M. (2005). Legistation by hypothesis: The case of task-based instruction. Applied Linguistics. 26, 276–401.
  • Ünal, E. (2013). The applicability of planned focus-on-form to French grammar teaching. International Periodical for the languages, literature and history of Turkish or Turkic, 8(10), 685–696.
  • Wajnryb, R., & Maley, A. (1990). Grammar dictation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Widdowson, H. G. (1990). Grammar, and nonsense, and learning, In D. Moyer (Ed.), Aspects of language teaching (pp. 79–98). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Willis, J. (1996). A Framework for task-based learning. London: Longman.

Details

Primary Language English
Subjects Education, Scientific Disciplines
Journal Section Issue Articles
Authors

Betül ÇETİN> (Primary Author)
DOKUZ EYLÜL ÜNİVERSİTESİ
0000-0002-0287-2924
Türkiye

Publication Date October 30, 2022
Published in Issue Year 2022, Volume 13, Issue 5

Cite

APA Çetin, B. (2022). Focus on Form in Task-Based Language Teaching: The Case of Turkish /İşe Dayalı Dil Öğretiminde Biçime Odaklanma: Türkçe Örneği . e-Uluslararası Eğitim Araştırmaları Dergisi , 13 (5) , 151-164 . DOI: 10.19160/e-ijer.1141487

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Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0)


editor@e-ijer.com                http://www.e-ijer.com            Ege University, Faculty of Education, Eğitim Sciences Departmant, 35040 Bornova / İzmir