Bu araştırmanın temel amacı; özel eğitim okullarında yaşanan yönetimsel sorunları bu okulların yöneticilerinin görüşlerine dayalı olarak belirlemektir. Araştırmada özel eğitim okullarında personel, öğrenci, öğretim, eğitim hizmetleri ve okul işletmesi ile ilgili sorunlar nelerdir? Sorularına yanıt aranmıştır. Bu çalışma nitel bir araştırma olarak desenlenerek, veriler görüşme formu aracılığı ile toplanmıştır. Elde edilen veri üzerinde içerik analizi yapılmıştır. Araştırma Malatya, Aydın ve Eskişehir illerindeki resmi özel eğitim okullarında görev yapan 26 özel eğitim okulu yöneticisi (müdür, müdür yardımcısı) ile yürütülmüştür. Araştırma sonucunda, özel eğitim okulu yöneticilerinin, öğretmenlerin stajyerliği kalkmadan müstakil sınıf verilmesini, kısa süreli kurslarla özel eğitim okullarında öğretmen görevlendirilmesini, öğrenci kayıtları 12 ay devam ettiğinden dönem ortasında gelen öğrencilerin taşınmasında yaşanan güçlükleri, e-okul modülünün özel eğitim okullarına göre düzenlenmemiş olmasını, öğrenciler için görselliğe önem veren basit programların geliştirilmemiş olmasını, satın alma, ihale, elektrik, su gibi konuların çok uğraştırmasını, öğrencilerin tanılanması ve okula yerleştirilmesi sürecinde, okullarına uygun olmayan, daha ağır derecede yetersizliğe sahip öğrencilerin velilerinin Rehberlik Araştırma Merkezi’ne (RAM) baskı yaparak okullarına yönlendirilmelerini, özel eğitim alanında uzmanlaşmış denetçilerle denetleme yapılmamasını vb. yaşanan sorunlar olarak ifade ettikleri görülmüştür.
Anahtar Sözcükler: Özel Eğitim Okulu, yönetim, yönetimsel sorunlar.
Purpose: School administration is a profession different from educational administration because their competency fields differ from educational administration (Açıkalın 1994: 3). In educational systems, suprasystems make administrative decisions. Mediator suprasystems conveys this decision to the basic systems (schools). But the schools are the core systems that implement education (Başaran, 1996:11). School administrators should know how to benefit from materials and human resources efficiently. For this aim, it is necessary to read and comment on the official documents about physical environment, equipment, curriculum and planning studies at school, job performance of the staffs and providing their personal benefits, enrollment, educating, teaching, transfer and graduation of students and protecting, using and writing down the inventories at school. All the activities should be done in this way at school (Ensari, ve Gündüz, 2006: 23-24). Responsibilities of school administration can be grouped as; staff services, student services, teaching, education and activities of school as an institution (Taymaz, 1989:189). The aim of a sound administration is to gain more by using less manpower, money, equipment, time and place. In other words, it is to provide the activities to be done in a simpler, cheaper and better way by using what we have at hand efficiently without wasting resources (Tortop, vd., 2007 :9). Special education is a kind of education conducted in appropriate conditions by depending on the school staffs who were trained for meeting the educational and social needs of the individual with special needs, improved curriculum, and the methods, academic qualifications and characteristics of these individuals in all development areas. Individuals in need of special education are those who differs significantly from his/her peers in terms of the individual characteristics and educational adequacy. In view of general aims and main principles of Turkish National Education; special education aims the individuals in need of special education prepare ; to live independently in the society and to be in a position of self-sufficiency to develop their basic life abilities; to raise them as productive and happy citizens who performs their roles in society, who has good relations with others, who works in cooperation, who adapts its environment; to prepare them for an upper level education, business and life according to educational needs, competencies interest and capabilities by using proper educational programmes and special methods, staffs equipment;. As it can be understood in the explanations, special education is as special as its name because of its many characteristics and it is different with its educational surroundings, staff, curriculum and methods. It is quite natural for the schools where the individuals with special needs are educated to have distinctive problems. Administrators with different responsibilities will have different administrative problems. Besides, today the terms “special education”, “student with special educational needs” and “special education schools” are still not understood correctly by most of the society. It is thought to be important to identify the other problems that the administrators have encountered serving in a difficult field. The aim of the study is to identify the administrative problems encountered in special education schools according to the views of these schools’ administrators.
Method: This study is a qualitative research and conducted appropriately to phenomenology from qualitative research designs. Data was collected with semi-structured open ended interview form. Content analysis was done on the data obtained.
Participants of the study are 26 special education school administrators at public schools in Malatya, Aydın and Eskişehir. Data collection instrument of the study is a semi-structured interview form which was prepared by the researcher and comprises of five open-ended questions. The questions were given to the administrators beforehand to have open ended answers. In preparation process of the questions, school administration responsibilities were taken into account. Content analyses were done on the nine questions answered by special education school administrators. Analysis was done through frequency analysis.
Findings and Results: The aim of this study is to identify the administrative problems experienced in Special Education Schools according to the views of these schools’ administrators. The findings of the study are summarized below:
About the school staff, administrators expressed problems as follows; charging teachers with an independent class during their internship, as a result of teacher’s receiving health report, appointing temporary teachers to meet the teacher need, employing teachers at these schools by short term courses. The problems which are thought by the administrators to be solved urgently are transportation of students because of school enrollment continues for 12 months, and e-school system’s not being organized for special education schools. These school administrators stated the problems in teaching as follows; there aren’t simple and visual materials which are developed for the students; the school library is not used by the teachers. School administrators stated the problems about their institutions as procurement, tender, electricity and water issues’ causing lots of troubles. In these schools most of the school administrators complain about the curriculum conducted in their schools. In the process of identifying and recruiting students, they stated that there is pressure by the parents to RAM for directing their children to these schools despite their children’s severe inabilities and inappropriateness to these schools. Administrators of special education schools stated the problems they experienced about inspection as not being inspected by specialized supervisors, inspectors’ not inspecting objectively and not contributing to education positively.
Keywords: Special Education Schools, Administrative, Administrative Problems